- 30 Octobre 2015
This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments.A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstream and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.
- 26 Octobre 2017
This book provides extensive and comprehensive knowledge to researchers and academics who work on strontium contaminated areas. Topics covered include impact on plants and environment, as well as remediation strategies. This book will inform graduate and undergraduate students who are specializing in radioecology, especially strontium uptake via soil to plants, safe disposal of strontium waste, remediation legacies and impact of strontium waste material on the natural and manmade environment. A broad overview of reviews is provided covering a number of original publications on strontium plant uptake, including case studies that present the latest technological developments and future trends for investigating strontium mobility in soil and treatment of strontium contaminated areas.
- 25 Avril 2019
In recent years, radioactive contamination in the environment by uranium (U) and its daughters has caused increasing concerns globally. This book provides recent developments and comprehensive knowledge to the researchers and academicians who are working on uranium contaminated areas worldwide. This book covers topics ranging from the beginning of the nuclear age until today, including historical views and epidemiological studies. Modelling practices and evaluation of radiological and chemical impact of uranium on man and the environment are included. Also covered are analytical methods used for the determination of uranium in geo/bio environments. Some chapters explore factors which influence uranium speciation and in consequence plant uptake/translocation. Last but not least, several chapters provide approaches and practices for remediation of uranium contaminated areas.
- 24 Octobre 2019
This book examines the way that lead enters the biosphere and the subsequent environmental impact. The contributing authors include international experts who provide methods for assessing and characterizing the ecological risk of lead contamination of soil and plants. Information is provided on the consequences for human health as a result of lead pollution. This book reveals that approximately 98% of stable lead in the atmosphere originates from human activities.
Lead in Plants and the Environment reports on methods for detecting, measuring, and assessing the concentration of lead in plants. The authors provide a method for the measurement of 210Pb isotopes in plants. This method can be applied extensively in different environmental settings, not only as a way of revealing sources of lead, but also as a way to monitor lead transport in plants and animals that ingest them.
The chapters include coverage on the following topics:
· Lead bioavailability in the environment and its exposure and effects
· Radioanalytical methods for detecting and identifying trace concentrations of lead in the environment
· Lead contamination and its dynamics in soil plant systems
· Lead pollution monitoring and remediation through terrestrial plants in mesocosm constructed wetlands
· A review of phytoremediation of lead
This book is a valuable resource to students, academics, researchers, and environmental professionals doing field work on lead contamination throughout the world.
- 20 Décembre 2023
This edited book brings together a diverse group of environmental science, sustainability, and health researchers to address the challenges posed by global mass poisoning caused by chromium contamination of soil and plants. In recent years, contamination of the environment by chromium has become a major concern. Chromium is a non-degradable, harmful, and toxic pollutant which negatively affects the environment. It is unique among the heavy metals found in industrial wastewater and sewage and sludge, as it may exist as a trivalent cation and as anion in the hexavalent state in the pH range of agricultural soils. It is used on a large scale in many different industries, including metallurgy, electroplating, production of paints and pigments, tanning, wood preservation, chemical production, and pulp and paper production. These industries are contributing larger amount of chromium, which can ultimately have significant adverse effects on biological and ecological activities of ecosystem. Chromium enters the food chain through consumption of plant material. A high concentration of chromium has been found to be harmful to vegetation. As the chromium concentration in plants increases, it adversely affects several biological parameters and eventually renders the soil barren.The book sheds light on this global environmental issue and proposes solutions to contamination through multi-disciplinary approaches and case studies from different parts of the world.This book is a valuable resource to students, academicians, researchers, and environmental professionals who are doing field work on chromium contamination throughout the world.
- 14 Octobre 2016
This book provides extensive and comprehensive knowledge to the researchers/academics who are working in the field of cesium contaminated sites, and the impact on plants. This book is also helpful for graduate and undergraduate students who are specializing in radioecology or safe disposal of radioactive waste, remediation of legacies and the impact on the environment. Radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) was released into the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing in 1950s and 1960s (~1x1018 Bq), and later due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (8.5x1016 Bq) and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011 (~1x1017 Bq). 137Cs is still of relevance due to its half-life of 30 years. The study of radioisotope 137Cs is important, as production and emission rates are high compared to other radioisotopes, due to high fission yield and high volatility.
This book contains original work and reviews on how cesium is released into the environment on translocation from soil to plants and further on to animals and into the human food chain. Separate chapters focus on the effective half-life of cesium in plants and on how different cultivars are responding in accumulation of cesium. Other key chapters focus on cesium impact on single cells to higher plants and also on remediation measures as well as on basic mechanism used for remedial options and analysis of transfer factors. The book rounds off by contributions on cesium uptake and translocation and its toxicity in plants after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents.
- 14 Juillet 2014
This book focuses on the mechanistic (microscopic) understanding of radionuclide uptake by plants in contaminated soils and potential use of phytoremediation. The key features concern radionuclide toxicity in plants, how the radioactive materials are absorbed by plants, and how the plants cope with the toxic responses. The respective chapters examine soil classification, natural plant selection, speciation of actinides, kinetic modeling, and case studies on cesium uptake after radiation accidents.Radionuclide contaminants pose serious problems for biological systems, due to their chemical toxicity and radiological effects. The processes by which radionuclides can be incorporated into vegetation can either originate from activity interception by external plant surfaces (either directly from the atmosphere or from resuspended material), or through uptake of radionuclides via the root system. Subsequent transfer of toxic elements to the human food chain is a concrete danger. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms and genetic basis of transport into and within plants needs to be understood for two reasons: The effectiveness of radionuclide uptake into crop plants - so-called transfer coefficient - is a prerequisite for the calculation of dose due to the food path. On the other hand, efficient radionuclide transfer into plants can be made use of for decontamination of land - so-called phytoremediation, the direct use of living, green plants for in situ removal of pollutants from the environment or to reduce their concentrations to harmless levels.